Referencing style

At the end of each manuscript a full list of references (which corresponds to all in-text citations) should be included and organised in alphabetical order.

Approaches follows the 7th Edition of the APA (American Psychological Association) referencing style.

Some of the main aspects of APA citation and referencing are outlined below. More detailed information about the APA referencing style can be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020, 7th Edition): and

For the identification of DOI numbers for journal articles and other references as outlined below, you may want to use this online service:

1. In-text citation

Author TypeParenthetical citationNarrative citation
One author(Silverman, 2015)Silverman (2015)
Two authors(Tsiris & Rickson, 2020)Tsiris and Rickson (2020)
Three or more authors(Holden et al., 2020)Holden et al. (2020)
Group author with abbreviation First citation     Subsequent citations(British Association for Music Therapy [BAMT], 2020)   (BAMT, 2020)British Association for Music Therapy (BAMT, 2020)   BAMT (2020)
Group author without abbreviation(Stanford University, 2020)Stanford University (2020)
Citing multiple works (in alphabetical order)(Holden et al., 2020; Silverman, 2015; Tsiris & Rickson, 2020)Holden et al. (2020), Silverman (2015) and Tsiris and Rickson (2020)
Personal communications(T. Wigram, personal communication, January 12, 1991)T. Wigram (personal communication, January 12, 1991)
Conference presentation(Lawes, 2018)Lawes (2018)

* In-text citations following direct quotations should also include the exact page numbers.

e.g. (Holden et al., 2020, p.30)

2. Reference list

2.1 Journal article
AuthorDateTitlePeriodical InformationDOI or URL
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.  (2020).Title of article.      Title of Periodical, 21(2), 4-16.   https://xxxx

Gold, C., Rolvsjord, R., Mössler, K., & Stige, B. (2013). Reliability and validity of a scale to measure interest in music among clients in mental health care. Psychology of Music, 41(5), 665-682.

2.2 Books and reference works
Author or EditorDateTitlePeriodical Information
Author, A. A., &
Author, B.B.   Editor, E. E. (Ed.).   Editor, E. E., & Editor, F. F. (Eds.).
(2020).Title of book.   Title of book (3rd ed., Vol. 5).   Title of book (T. Translator, Trans.).Publisher Name.

One Author:

Oldfield, A. (2006). Interactive music therapy in child and family psychiatry: Clinical practice, research, and teaching. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Two or more editors:

De Backer, J., & Sutton, J. (Eds.). (2014). The music in music therapy: Psychodynamic music therapy in Europe: Clinical, theoretical and research approaches. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

2.3 Edited book chapters and entries in reference works
Chapter authorDateChapter titleEdited book information
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.   Name of Group(2020).Title of chapter.In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. 5-26). Publisher Name.   In E.E. Editor & F. F. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 156-232). Publisher Name.

Chapter in an Edited Book:

Lipe, A. (2015). Music therapy assessment. In B. Wheeler (Ed.), Music therapy handbook (pp. 76-90). The Guildford Press.

2.4 Dissertation/thesis:
  Author  Date  TitleDatabase or archive nameDOI or URL
Author, A. A.(2020).Title of dissertation [Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree].   Title of thesis [Master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree].Database Name.   Archive Name.https://xxxxx

Tsiris, G. (2018). Performing spirituality in music therapy: Towards action, context and the everyday [Doctoral thesis, Goldsmiths, University of London]. Goldsmiths Research Online.

2.5 Conference session or presentation:
AuthorDateTitleConference informationDOI or URL
Presenter, A. A., & Presenter, B. B.(2020, August 16-18).   (2020, January 31-February 1).Title of contribution [Type of contribution].Conference Name, City, Country.   htps://xxxxx

Conference Session:

Fistek, A., Jester, E., & Sonnenberg, K. (2017, July 12–15). Everybody’s got a little music in them: Using music therapy to connect, engage, and motivate [Conference session]. Autism Society National Conference, Milwaukee, WI, United States.

 * For a published conference abstract, please follow the book chapter referencing guidelines.

3. Referencing sources written in a language other than English:

Please provide a translation of the title in English in square brackets as follows:

Dassa, A. (2012). אלצהיימר חולי אוכלוסיית עם לעבוד במוזיקה מטפלות של הבחירה נרטיב [The narrative of female music therapists regarding their choice to work with Alzheimer’s patients]. In D. Amir & C. Elefant (Eds.), Listen to my voice: New research studies in music therapy (pp. 230- 256). Ach Publishers.

4. Titles of books, articles and other sources within the text:

  • Uses title case within the text for titles of sources as shown in the examples below
  • Title of book:
    • e.g. In the book Music Therapy: Intimate Notes, Pavlicevic argues that…
  • Title of article:
    • e.g. As shown in the article “Facilitated Music Listening: Music Therapy in an Invasive Cardiac Procedure”, music therapy can…
  • Titles of periodicals:
    • e.g. The editors of the British Journal of Music Therapy have published a special issue…
    • e.g. As published in The Sunday Times last week…
  • Title of conference session or presentation:
    • e.g.  “Everybody’s Got a Little Music in Them: Using Music Therapy to Connect, Engage, and Motivate”